NoDaLiDa 2023 - May 22-24, 2023


Toxicity Detection in Finnish Using Machine Translation

Anni Eskelinen, Laura Silvala, Filip Ginter, Sampo Pyysalo, Veronika Laippala

Due to the popularity of social media platforms and the sheer amount of user-generated content online, the automatic detection of toxic language has become crucial in the creation of a friendly and safe digital space. Previous work has been mostly focusing on English leaving many lower-resource languages behind.

In this paper, we present novel resources for toxicity detection in Finnish by introducing two new datasets, a machine translated toxicity dataset for Finnish based on the widely used English Jigsaw dataset and a smaller test set of Suomi24 discussion forum comments originally written in Finnish and manually annotated following the definitions of the labels that were used to annotate the Jigsaw dataset. We show that machine translating the training data to Finnish provides better toxicity detection results than using the original English training data and zero-shot cross-lingual transfer with XLM-R, even with our newly annotated dataset from Suomi24. 

Detection and attribution of quotes in Finnish news media: BERT vs. rule-based approach

Maciej Janicki, Antti Kanner, Eetu Mäkelä

We approach the problem of recognition and attribution of quotes in Finnish news media. Solving this task would create possibilities for large-scale analysis of media wrt. the presence and styles of presentation of different voices and opinions. We describe the annotation of a corpus of media texts, numbering around 1500 articles, with quote attribution and coreference information. Further, we compare two methods for automatic quote recognition: a rule-based one operating on dependency trees and a machine learning one built on top of the BERT language model. We conclude that BERT provides more promising results even with little training data, achieving 95% F-score on direct quote recognition and 84% for indirect quotes. Finally, we discuss open problems and further associated tasks, especially the necessity of resolving speaker mentions to entity references. 

Automated Claim Detection for Fact-checking: A Case Study using Norwegian Pre-trained Language Models

Ghazaal Sheikhi, Samia Touileb, Sohail Ahmed Khan

We investigate to what extent pre-trained language models can be used for automated claim detection for fact-checking in a low resource setting. We explore this idea by fine-tuning four Norwegian pre-trained language models to perform the binary classification task of determining if a claim should be discarded or upheld to be further processed by human fact-checkers. We conduct a set of experiments to compare the performance of the language models, and provide a simple baseline model using SVM with tf-idf features. Since we are focusing on claim detection, the recall score for the \textit{upheld} class is to be emphasized over other performance measures. Our experiments indicate that the language models are superior to the baseline system in terms of F1, while the baseline model results in the highest precision. However, the two Norwegian models, NorBERT2 and NB-BERT_large, give respectively superior F1 and recall values. We argue that large language models could be successfully employed to solve the automated claim detection problem. The choice of the model depends on the desired end-goal. Moreover, our error analysis shows that language models are generally less sensitive to the changes in claim length and source than the SVM model. 

Class Explanations: the Role of Content and Function Words

Denitsa Saynova, Bastiaan Bruinsma, Moa Johansson, Richard Johansson

We address two understudied areas related to explainability for neural text models. First, \emph{class explanations}. What features are descriptive across a class, rather than explaining single input instances? Second, the \emph{type of features} that are used for providing explanations. Does the explanation involve the statistical pattern of word usage or the presence of domain-specific content words? Here, we present a method to extract both class explanations and strategies to differentiate between two types of explanations -- domain-specific signals or statistical variations in frequencies of common words. We demonstrate our method using a case study in which we analyse transcripts of political debates in the Swedish Riksdag.